Protein synthesis regulation is a crucial part of gene expression control. The level of certain proteins that can be created upon requests, such as the synthesis of distinct chains of blood or the creation of insulin from stored insulin-mRNAs in response to blood glucose stages, is controlled through the regulation of mRNA transcription.
Controlling cell cycle and proliferation involves regulation of protein synthesis. Malignant transformation of cells can also be caused by loss of translational regulatory control.
At the molecular level, we now understand how protein synthesis works and provide examples of how it is controlled. You can know more about protein synthesis by browsing this site online.
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The mechanism of protein synthesis will be discussed. Many viruses fight with their infected host cells for control of the protein synthesis machinery, which is necessary for a viral generation.
Many viruses use inhibition of host cell protein production as a key component to their ability to propagate and destroy infected cells. Infected cells respond by producing potent biological molecules, such as a-interferon, which in part inhibit protein synthesis.
A large number of antibiotics that are currently being developed or in use inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria, but not in animal cells. They exploit differences in the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes.
MECHANISM OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Six stages can be broken down into protein synthesis:
1. Amino Acid activation: The tRNA can be charged by covalently linking to its cognate amino acids.
2. Formation of initiation compounds: Association of mRNA, subunits of the ribosomal, and initiation factors.
3. Translation: Assembly of a stable ribosome complex at initiation codon.
4. Chain elongation is the repetition of adding amino acids to the growing (nascent) chain.
5. Chain termination: Release of the nascent polypeptide.
6. Ribosome dissociation – Subunits are separated before a new round is initiated.